Pobitra Halder, ... Eity Sarker, in Advances in Eco-Fuels for a Sustainable Environment, 2019. Ethanol is produced by microbial fermentation of the sugar. Processing route 1 appears to be economically the most sustainable option. Without swift and decisive action in Washington, many more may soon halt grain purchases or close their doors. It is worth noting that the worst scenario is related to substitution (S1) with DDGS and wheat straw used as animal feed. This means that the starch-based biorefinery would be less favorable than the conventional system in terms of GHG emissions in the unexpected case when production of wheat causes deforestation (LUC6). In this area, EFB is treated by hot ERW at a temperature of 180 oC in 60 mins to resolve almost hemicellulose and form a hydrolyzate slurry. Integrated bioethanol production/bioethanol reformation plant for green hydrogen production. Ethanol Facts: Setting the Record Straight, Expanding the Market for Ethanol at Home and Abroad. The process materials after pretreatment are a slurry of liquids and solids. Na and K contents of 23.2 and 32.2 mg/kg respectively (according to Öhman et al., 2006). EFB is delivered to the feed handing area (A100) for storage, size reduction and homogenization. In the last few weeks, we’ve seen overall demand down 50 percent compared to last year. The yeast bacteria Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used to convert sugars to ethanol. Low alkali content reduces the risk of slagging, corrosion and deposition problems in the gasifier. We value our workers highly, and many companies are doing everything they can to keep their teams whole during this crisis, with pay or benefits. That’s the market for 2.7 billion bushels of corn. Learn more about our ethanol operations.. Valero owns 14 ethanol process plants in the United States … Source: Bridgewater (2009) and DENA (2006). To satisfy bioethanol production as target in 2021, five scenarios for the future bioethanol production systems are developed using the key assumption that the 48 registered bioethanol plants will be operated and the additional feedstocks like cassava and sugarcane will be produced from different scenarios as follows (Silalertruksa and Gheewala, 2011): Base case: Cassava and sugarcane yields are projected to increase to reach the genetic potentials of the current varieties (i.e., 50 and 125 t/ha, respectively). The results are quantified as GHG emissions of fuel ethanol consumed in car operation, taking into account GHG emissions attributed to coproducts (Fig. The plant had a capacity of 8000 tons per year of ethanol production from wheat straw, corn stover, and poplar residuals at a feed rate of 5.8 tons per hour. Linlin Yang, ... Ignacio E. Grossmann, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 2015. For farmers, the lost income will be measured in billions, not millions. It is interesting to note that integration into an existing refinery or chemical plant is the most cost-effective option across the different processing routes. Results of the bioethanol plant optimization using the methodology explored in Section 2. This implies that using ethanol where feedstocks are from plantation areas on forest land (Scenarios 3 and 4) to substitute gasoline will increase the GHG emissions by about 5.91 and 2.68 M tons CO2-eq/year, respectively. privacy policy | terms of use. The objective of this minimization is to find the MESP that minimizes the total cost (TC) of the bioethanol plant. Plant Location In the United States, ethanol is produced from corn, which is grown year-round. Nevertheless, several estimates are available for different biofuel technologies. In Brazil, ethanol is produced from sugar cane, which is only available nine months per year. However, the cheaper Brazilian ethanol prices and greater costal access for shipping purposes allow for a more cost-effective process. 4.12) showing a dramatic decrease in fossil fuels consumption typically used for processing ethanol. An example is the 18 million litres/yr CHOREN, Corn fiber, corn stover, grasses, garden waste, and straw, Hardwood and softwood residues; agriresidues, Wheat straw, corn stover, poplar residuals, Long-term cultivated, reduced tillage, medium inputs, Long-term cultivated, no tillage, medium inputs, Long-term cultivated, full tillage, medium inputs. 4.19), in kg CO2 eq./km. For livestock operations, the most immediate threat is the increase in costs associated with replacing high-protein feed, or Dried Distillers Grains (DDGs), from ethanol plants. But resources are dwindling. That is a staggering loss of animal feed for our nation’s ranchers and livestock operators. Ethanol Producer Magazine is the oldest, largest and most read trade publication in the ethanol industry. Share. In addition to the economic benefits, this option provides operational and organisational synergies and significantly lowers the plant availability risk. Research done at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Humbird et al., 2011) found that an optimized plant featuring a dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and a pure corn stover feedstock would have a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15 per gallon, comparing well to the results found here when all possible design decisions are considered. In most of the newer ethanol plants, also known as "dry grind" plants, the corn kernels are finely ground into small particles. Four Minnesota ethanol plants are idled and many more have throttled back production as COVID-19 has sapped gasoline demand, crushing the biofuel industry. 6.16 describes the production process of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials. Touring a corn ethanol plant! BIGCC system integrated in dry-grind ethanol plant, taken from (De Kam et al., 2009). This is unlike anything we’ve seen before. The Na and K contents are 3–22 mg/kg dry weight and 200–1310 mg/kg dry weight respectively (see Werkelin et al., 2005). Ethanol is a natural byproduct of plant fermentation and also can be produced through the hydration of ethylene. Tweet. Bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic materials. Fuel demand bottomed out after hitting the lowest levels since the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) began tracking the data in 1991. The bagasse generated by the process is not wasted, but is used in power plants to produce electricity. Integration into an existing refinery or chemical plant can also accelerate the planning procedure and can lower investment costs by around 25% (DENA, 2006). https://t.co/dBk6DUQLdO, With lawsuit against @EPA, #biofuel leaders @GrowthEnergy argue the agency “needs to take action on behalf of rural America and follow through with its #RFS obligation.” https://t.co/SJUOdwojP2, @NateDodd89 shares message @GrowthEnergy & Prime the Pump have brought retailers that compete fiercely everyday together in market as a unified source. On the other hand, possible sulphur and nitrogen contamination from the process is a disadvantage (Fig. This scenario employs straw and DDGS as fuels for generation of heat & power (CHP) instead of fossil fuels. In a survey of member companies conducted by the Association of Equipment Manufacturers (AEM), more than half (56 percent) had a “very negative” outlook for the industry and individual equipment manufacturers. Hence, the net avoided GHG emissions of bioethanol as compared to gasoline for Scenarios 3 and 4 are negative (Table 8.4). Courtesy of Midwest Grain Producers In the second stage, bioethanol is reformed with steam to generate pure hydrogen, following a thermochemical conversion process. The share of the commercial, pilot, and demonstration-scale plants in the nonoperational plant category is nearly the same. The indexes are changed from 19.7% to 104.9%. Complete Ethanol Solution. The average GHG emissions of the overall bioethanol system in Thailand would possibly be 0.49–3.7 kg CO2-eq/L ethanol (Table 8.4). The fermenter unit will enzymatically ferment the feedstock consisting of a complex mixture of cellulose, hexose, and prefermented pentose, and finally generate liquid ethanol from the enzymatic process. Some of these plants were stopped during their construction while the plan for some facilities was canceled well before their start-up year. Note: Ref – integrated into refinery; option 3 not considered worthwhile integrating into a refinery. With other costs added (including site development, project contingency, etc. The State of Iowa provided $20 million for job training and construction costs. The pretreatment implies hydrolysis hemicellulose and lignin and an enzymatic cellulose treatment with specific pentose fermentation yeasts, such as Candida shehatae or Pichia stipitis. Larson et al. The beer product is distilled in two consequence columns, beer and rectification distillation columns, to raise the ethanol concentration to about 92.5 wt% in the purification area (A400). Ethanol producers represent the heart of the rural economy, and when they are forced offline, the ripple effect can be felt across the agricultural supply chain – from farmers without a market for their crops to meatpackers and ranchers that rely on local ethanol plants … Add six more ethanol companies to the list of plaintiffs suing Archer Daniels Midland, alleging one of the nation’s largest ethanol producers manipulated the market. The expected production rate of the plant was 40,000 tons per year from wheat straw, rice straw, Arundo donax, and popular of 270,000 tons per year. Hence, expansion of new cultivated areas will not be required. Heaton’s research at Iowa State focuses on using perennial crops to make ethanol… Microbial fermentation currently only works directly with sugars.Two major components of plants, starch and cellulose, are both made of sugars—and can, in principle, be converted to sugars for fermentation. Already, we’ve seen corn prices hit a multi-year low at $3.01 per bushel. Those who can operate are doing so at a steep loss, while others have shuttered completely. Ethanol Plants Suppliers | Fuel-Ethanol Plants | Industrial Grade Alcohol Plants. The default scenario consists of energy allocation (A1), set aside to cultivated land (LUC1), and fuel blend E5 with data of fuel performance obtained by actual vehicle tests (1 type). The ethanol produced has a minimum selling price of $2.07 per gallon. When ethanol production drops by half, so does production of DDGs. Tweet. Figure 1. While measuring the profitability of ethanol plants is difficult, the industry-trusted benchmark is Iowa State University’s Ethanol Plant Model. Iowa, Wisconsin Ethanol Plants Sue ADM. Six Ethanol Companies File New Anti-Trust Lawsuit Against Archer Daniels Midland. Almost half the total cellulosic ethanol plants so far established ceased operation. System definition and boundaries (from reference system to system studied) for wheat-based biorefinery. One plant even stopped all-together, but has since restarted. As mentioned in Ni et al. 4.11). The Maleta cyclic distillation LLC Company is supplier of complex equipment for producing ethanol food grade and fuel ethanol. Their characteristics are shown in Table 4.8. Bioethanol plants have been established for the demonstration of practical experiments in Ie Island, Okinawa prefecture (Kawamitsu et al., 2003), in collaboration with Asahi Beer Company in Japan. Coskata started to construct a cellulosic ethanol production plant in Madison, the United States [54]. By-products of first-and second-generation bioethanol plants can be used in IGCC facilities to produce power and heat, which can then be used for the distillation process (see Kaliyan et al., 2011; Eriksson and Kjellström 2010). Such results show significant environmental reduction in comparison with the reference case; indexes vary from 63.8% to − 6.7%. The optimal bioethanol plant produces 42 million gallons of ethanol per year from the processing of 770,000 U.S. tons of biomass per year using a dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment. (2002). Keeping these plants online will be vital to preventing shortages and price spikes in America’s grocery stores. The relative results are expressed as an index parameter in Table 4.17. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Land use and LUC for ethanol feedstock production were found to be the key linkage to the GHG performance of biofuels. Share. Table 4.16. It can also be obtained via ethylene or acetylene, from calcium carbide, coal, oil gas, and other sources. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to send shockwaves throughout the rural economy, America is counting on the farm belt to ensure an uninterrupted harvest of essential food, fiber, and fuel. A complex distillation unit is required to extract the desired fraction of ethanol, as shown in the flowsheet from Fig. Process options considered in the DENA study, Table 3.7. Table 4.17 shows a summary of the results from the LCA obtained for selected scenarios [16]. Ethanol production in the U.S. hit more than 16 billion gallons per year in 2018, and production continues to rise thanks to improved processes and equipment in ethanol’s manufacture. The mixture, also known as mash, is cooked to break the starch down further. (2011), IGCC proves to be the best solution for CO2,eq emissions abatement also for the first-generation bioethanol industry. Finally, the influence of fuel blends and car performance were investigated through the assessment of scenarios 19–22. In total there are nine options of LUC (LUC1–LUC9), four allocations (A1–A4), four substitutions (S1–S4), three fuel blends (E5, E10, E85), and three fuel performances (1,2,3) which were tested in this work [16]. Concentré et hydraté, l’éthanol devient le bioéthanol, biocarburant qu’on mélange à l’essence ou au diesel pour la consommation des moteurs. The plant had a capacity of 8000 tons per year of ethanol production from wheat straw, corn stover, and poplar residuals at a feed rate of 5.8 tons per hour. This means that E10 is the most favorable type of fuel blend with respect to mitigation of GHGs according to the car test results. Purpose – Corn ethanol plants consume large amounts of corn and their location has the potential to alter local crop prices and surrounding agricultural land values. Figure 1.14. Fixed costs for shuttered ethanol plants during this period are estimated to total $195 million or $274 million, depending on whether plants are assumed to have construction debt or not. A total of 30 MWe of renewable power can be produced at a dry-grind ethanol facility with the capacity of 190 million litres per year, while also supplying process heat using ethanol coproducts and corn cobs. L’éthanol est un alcool présent dans les boissons alcoolisées et qui est utilisé dans l’industrie comme solvant ou désinfectant. Models representing each of these cost variables are shown as Eq. Carbon dioxide emissions would also be reduced if BIG/GTCC electricity were to displace oil-generated power; up to 18.35 MtCO2eq of emissions could be avoided, representing about 70% of the 26.8 MtCO2eq released by oil burning in Cuba at the time. If sufficient steam supply does exist at proper operating conditions, then the reforming process can be described by the following chemical equation, However, the actual operation condition and re finiteness of the reformer size will not allow for the ideal conversion, so undesirable CO and CH4 by products are formed, The following ethanol dehydrogenation reaction-forming acetaldehyde may occur, Further reaction pathways are defined through the decomposition of ethanol as, Other side reactions and recombinations are written as, The catalysts selection is very important in optimization of ethanol reforming. Thus the benefits of a biorefinery with respect to gasoline could be both positive and negative depending on various scenarios. An energy integrated distillation, evaporation and dehydration system ensures maximum efficiency. The biomass feed consists of a near even mixture of switchgrass and corn stover with a small amount of hybrid poplar added. @caseysgenstore @EmilySkor E15 Expressway: Web Chat with Retailers, featuring Casey's https://t.co/oTnSEImoQd via @YouTube, © 2020 Growth Energy Nine out of 10 executives surveyed cited a decline in demand for equipment as the primary impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their business. ∗Negative values (−) means bioethanol does not provide GHG emission benefit as compared to gasoline. Jonathan P. Raftery, M. Nazmul Karim, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 2014. A summary of these options with short explanations is presented in Table 4.16. The reforming process ends up with the water-gas shift reaction CO+H2O→H2+CO2. The flowsheet diagram of the integrated plant is shown in Fig. While protoplast viability was … The plant employs a state-of-the-art Vogelbusch continuous fermentation process. The diagram shown in Fig. P. Vaskan, ... E. Gnansounou, in Life-Cycle Assessment of Biorefineries, 2017. (2007), nickel supported on yttrium oxide or lanthanum oxide or aluminum oxide are good candidates for ethanol steam reforming. We are the world's second largest corn ethanol producer. [citation needed] In the United States, the ethanol fuel industry is based largely on corn. Meyer says … The case study is based on a bioethanol plant consuming wheat as a feedstock and located in Switzerland. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. However, they stopped the plant during the construction phase. They aimed to produce about 53,511 tons per year from sawmill waste and roadside residues using gasification technology. Results of Assessments of GHG Emissions for Selected Scenarios. 6.17. The results prove the importance of LUC to the GHG emissions balance. "Ethanol plants are the top supplier of carbon dioxide to the food industry, and shutdowns have triggered commercial CO2 supply shortages, inhibiting … Bioethanol is produced by fermentation of biomass material, which can be described according to the equation. Table 1. In today’s market, that would cut production from about 38 to 19 million metric tons, using USDA figures. Ethanol industry groups have reported more than half of all ethanol production either shut down or cut back production. 6.16. (2001) have shown that Cuba’s sugar factories have the crushing capacity to support about 5.6 GW from Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG/GTCC), compared to 4.3 GW which is Cuba’s total installed electric utility generating capacity. The following sections will develop mass and energy balance models for the unit operations as well as raw material requirements necessary for these costs to be calculated. Most of the ethanol is produced in the Midwest and Upper Midwest where ethanol plants are close to and have a consistent supply of corn, access to water resources, and have livestock production nearby. De Kam et al. The index is the ratio of biorefinery GHG to RSs GHG emissions, expressed in percent. Add six more ethanol companies to the list of plaintiffs suing Archer Daniels Midland, alleging one of the nation’s largest ethanol producers manipulated the market. And the biofuel industry is a critical link in that supply chain. The variability of results from plant to plant and the improvement in the water efficiency obtained with the new designs can be seen in Figure 1.11. Scenario 2: The new plantation areas for both cassava and sugarcane take place on grassland. The best result is found for the base case, i.e., yield improvement for both cassava and sugarcane which brings about the highest GHG emission reduction as compared to gasoline. The ethanol product is dehydrated by a molecular sieve adsorption system to produce the commercial ethanol of 99.5 wt%. “In their latest weekly inventory report, the EIA (U.S. Energy Information Administration) reported that ethanol plant production is at a 15-year low,” she said. The first eight scenarios test different allocation methods and substitutes. The plant was a joint venture of a Dutch company and POET, an ethanol company based in South Dakota. In addition to the economic benefits, this option provides operational and organisational synergies and significantly lowers the plant availability risk. November 15, 2020 November 14, 2020 By Todd Neeley, DTN Staff Reporter. In the long term, if Cuba were to install BIG/GTCC systems throughout its sugarcane processing industry, electricity exports could total 12–23 TWh/yr (for harvest levels of 40–80 MtC/yr). Bench-scale ethanol production using dilute H2SO4 instead of enzymes, resulted in a solid residue with an ash content below 0.1% of dry weight. Table 8.4. Share. Here, the total cost is a function of the capital cost (CC), the operating cost (OC), the labor cost (LC), and the ethanol profit (EP). Commercial Cellulosic Ethanol Plants in Brazil Granbio Cellulosic Ethanol plant, Alagoas. Investment costs for different technology options in the DENA study. (2009) analysed the integration of a BIGCC, with a twin fluidized bed steam gasifier, to a dry-grind ethanol facility (Fig. The functional unit assumed in the LCA study is 1 km of car operation. Table 4.17. VOGELBUSCH USA Inc. started up the ethanol plant of Cornhusker Energy in spring 2006, with a production capacity of 450,000 liters per day of bioethanol from corn. Any interruption creates a massive ripple effect across the rural economy. However, Young said the decision of bringing the plants online will depend entirely on the data around "how the US economy is recovering, and how driving miles are going to seasonally recover as well." Like other plants around the country, North Dakota’s ethanol plants had to slow down their production. The lignocellulosic matrix is broken in, sufficiently producing enough amorphous cellulose for the enzymatic fermentation process. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The mash is removed from the cookers and allowed to cool before a second enzyme (glucoamalyse) is added to the mash. As can be observed, the results of the LCA are very sensitive to the use of various methodological options. Toxicity of ethanol on three different plant systems has been evaluated. The resulting products are liquids and solid materials comprising hydrolyzed hemicellulose, lignin, soluble pentose, xylose, and glucose. Fig. Francesco Fantozzi, Pietro Bartocci, in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technologies, 2017. Traductions en contexte de "ethanol plants" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : As members know, we have supported a number of new ethanol plants. This enzyme helps turn the liquid starch into sugars. E85 is a gasoline-ethanol blend containing 51% to 83% ethanol, depending on geography and season, and is defined as an alternative fuel.Although most E85 use in the United States occurs in the Midwest, about 3,625 public E85 fueling stations are located around the country. (5). At this point, no one fully knows what the final impact will be on corn and biofuel demand, but U.S. ethanol plants purchase about 5.4 billion bushels of corn each year, and as much as half the industry could soon be offline. Conceptual PFD of bioethanol production plant from palm empty fruit bunch. The objective function used to achieve this goal is defined as Eq. (1). The actual ash composition of the SSFR will depend on the process design. Hydrogen is then formed at 773 K by partial oxidation of ethanol, which will lead to an autothermal process as follows. However, the greatest impact is in local markets, where livestock operators may not be able to economically replace a vital source of key nutrients that they would normally get from their local ethanol plant. Scenarios 9–18 investigated the effect of LUC on environmental performance. However, they had to shut down the plant due to the bankruptcy of the parent company Mossi and Ghisolfi [54]. The total cost has a strong dependence on the amount of ethanol produced and the amount of raw materials used. The resulting pure ethanol is now mixed with water under pressure and heated up to a high temperature for the reformation process. Ethanol producers represent the heart of the rural economy, and when they are forced offline, the ripple effect can be felt across the agricultural supply chain – from farmers without a market for their crops to meatpackers and ranchers that rely on local ethanol plants for animal feed and carbon dioxide. Based on the ISU model, the returns over variable costs (not returns over all costs) was -4 cents per gallon in January 2020 and averaged 6 cents per gallon during 2019. Our Company owns the technology and equipment for the implementation of projects for the entire life-cycle of production fuel ethanol and ethanol food grade. The renewable energy ratio of ethanol production could be improved from a typical value of 1.7 up to 5.1 at plants using BIGCC technology. The plant includes all process areas: Grain Receiving and Storage, Corn Cleaning and Milling, Liquefaction and Cooking, Yeast Propagation and Fermentation, Distillation, Dehydration, Stillage Evaporation, Stillage Separation, WDG Storage and Shipping, Fuel Ethanol Storage and Loading, CIP System, and Chemical Storage. An example is the 18 million litres/yr CHOREN bioethanol plant whose costs escalated from €500 million in early 2007 to €1000 million in early 2008 (Bridgwater, 2009). The cost of labor in the plant totaled approximately $7 million. Additional information is expected to be discussed in the company’s upcoming … A recent study by the US EPA (2009) estimates the costs for a bio-chemical plant producing 56 million gallons/yr of ethanol from 849 385 dry tonnes/yr of corn stover at $133 million/yr (for the year 2010). Figure 4.12. Their ash content and composition are of particular interest for advanced thermal power processes. Read more about what CEO @EmilySkor has to say: growthenergy.org/2020/12/01/gro… https://t.co/2kKygdDwb7, @GrowthEnergy announced its intent to sue the @EPA for missing the Nov. 30 deadline for finalizing Renewable Fuel Standard volumes. However, the ethanol systems widely adopt the sustainability measures (e.g., waste utilization and replacing coal by biomass in ethanol plants). Iowa, Wisconsin Ethanol Plants Sue ADM – DTN. Bioethanol-derived hydrogen can be used directly in solid oxide fuel cell applications, since those are insensitive to poisoning with traces of carbon monoxide. A by-product of ethanol production is distillers grains, which can be fed to livestock either wet or dried. A shortage of CO2 from ethanol plants also inhibits the ability of meatpackers to refrigerate, preserve, and package food. Many agricultural products and wastes such as sugar cane, potatoes, switchgrass, corn, starch-rich and lignocellulosic material can be converted to ethanol by fermentation. The results from the RS are the GHG emissions of gasoline car operation, that is 0.237 kg CO2 eq./km. 6.17. Share. Further analysis is complex because the plants are not identified and the variability can also be due to their geographical location. Petroleum derived ethanol (synthetic ethanol) is chemic… The environmental performance of the biorefinery is evaluated according to net GHG emissions of bioethanol in a fuel blend consumed in car operation, and DDGS and wheat straw utilized in different services. Estimates of capital costs for biofuel plants (or any other developing technology) are uncertain due to the many influencing factors. In general, the scenarios are varied by LUCs, substituted services for DDGS and wheat straw, allocation methods between coproducts, types of fuel blends consumed by car, and types of car performance. Estimation of the net GHG emissions and the average GHG emission factors of future bioethanol production system in Thailand*. The loss of farm and biofuel markets impacts every element of the supply chain, including equipment manufacturers. Published by BBI International Media, Ethanol Producer Magazine is the source for in depth ethanol industry news. The system integrates a bioethanol plant with an ethanol thermochemical reforming plant. In its latest announcement, Pacific Ethanol said it now plans to sell or repurpose those three idle plants as part of its strategic alignment and new business focus. How is ethanol made from corn? The whole industrial bioethanol plant from EFB includes five areas: feed handing (A100), pretreatment and conditioning (A200), saccharification and co-fermentation (A300), product purification (A400), and wastewater treatment (A500). However, the ethanol systems widely adopt the sustainability measures (e.g., waste utilization and replacing coal by biomass in ethanol plants). In December 2017, Vivergo stopped production of their ethanol plant established in East Yorkshire, United Kingdom, because of policy and market uncertainty. The principal suppliers are plants in the United States, Europe, and South Africa. Then water is added to the ground corn along with enzymes to convert the starch for fermentation. This is a skilled workforce that rural America cannot afford to lose. 6.17. For example, Scenarios 3 and 4 are worse for the future development of ethanol production in Thailand, i.e., the forest land is trespassed by farmers for cassava and sugarcane cultivation. In general, the analyzed work [16] clearly illustrates that GHG emissions of the starch-based biorefinery strongly depend on the methodological choices made in the LCA analysis.

ethanol on plants

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